2019-06-24 17:57 供稿單位: 新航道
例 1：(TPO 2 Desert Formation)
The final major human cause of desertification is soil salinization resulting from overirrigation. Excess water from irrigation sinks down into the water table. If no drainage system exists, the water table rises, bringing dissolved salts to the surface. The water evaporates and the salts are left behind, creating a white crustal layer that prevents air and water from reaching the underlying soil.
9. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as contributing to desertification EXCEPT
○ soil erosion
○ global warming
○ insufficient irrigation
○ the raising of livestock
解析：C 選項“insufficient irrigation”和原文“overirrigation”矛盾。
例 2：（TPO 3 The Long-Term Stability of Ecosystems）
Paragraph 1: Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their
particular structure depends on the specific history of the area. Ecologists use the term “succession” to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changes—in plant numbers and the mix of species—are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.
2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?
○ They occur at the end of a succession.
○ They last longer than any other type of community.
托福第一頻道2018下半年.indd 31 2018/8/13 15:41:22
○ The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change.
○ They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.
解析：C 選項“do not change”和原文最后一句話“Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.”矛盾。
例 3：（TPO 10 Chinese Pottery）
Paragraph 3: The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., high-temperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns
in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry.
The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb models of the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tang dynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs were outlined in a raised trail of slip—as well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.
5. Paragraph 3 supports all of the following concerning the history of the ceramic industry in China EXCEPT:
○ The earliest high-fired ceramics were of poor quality.
○ Ceramics produced during the Tang and Ming dynasties sometimes incorporated multiple colors.
○ Earthenware ceramics were produced in China before stonewares were.
○ The Song dynasty period was notable for the production of high quality porcelain ceramics.
解 析：A 選 項“poor quality”（not good quality） 和 原 文“During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality.”矛盾。